Determine the volume of the trench by using the formula: Volume = Width x Length x Depth. As an example, a trench 12 feet long with an average width of 2.3 feet and an average depth of 5 feet has a volume of (12 x 2.3 x 5) cubic feet.
When a trench is 4 feet or more in depth?
The requirements are: In trenches that are 4 feet or more in depth, provide a means of access and egress. Spacing between ladders, stairs or ramps should not be more than 50 feet. No worker should have to travel more than 25 feet laterally to reach a means of egress (exit).
What is the unit of measure in excavation?
Get solutionsGet solutions Get solutions done loading Looking for the textbook? The measurement of excavation should be done in cubic yard, cubic meters, cubic feet or in other words it should be measure in the form of volume.
Is code for deep excavation?
4.13 No excavation or earthwork below the level of any foundation of building or structure shall be commenced or continued unless adequate steps are taken to prevent danger to any person employed, from collapse of the structure or fall of any part thereof.
How wide should a trench be?
A trench is defined as a narrow excavation (in relation to its length) made below the surface of the ground. In general, the depth of a trench is greater than its width, but the width of a trench (measured at the bottom) is not greater than 15 feet (4.6 m). What are the dangers of trenching and excavation operations?
How do you calculate slope of excavation?
Slope Angle Calculations
This simple equation will tell you the proper opening width: (depth x 2) x type slope ratio + width of original excavation = top width. As an example, let’s calculate the slope angle of a simple trench that is 6 feet deep by 2 feet wide, factoring in the type of soil. Type A: (6 feet x 2) x .
At what depth is trench shoring required?
Trenches 5 feet (1.5 meters) deep or greater require a protective system unless the excavation is made entirely in stable rock. If less than 5 feet deep, a competent person may determine that a protective system is not required.
What is the unit of earthwork?
1- Earthwork: It is measured in CUM or m3. This includes all types of excavation. Vegetation removal and other extra work is measured separately. 2- Backfilling: It is measured in CUM or m3.
What is the formula of service unit method?
The service unit method
For example hospitals are designed to accommodate certain number of beds. Each bed is then considered a unit. … Then the adjusted cost per service unit is simply multiplied by the number of service units in the proposed project to get an approximate cost estimate.
What is the unit of Distempering on wall?
Distempering Unit= Square Feet, or “sft”. iv. Painting Unit= Square Feet, or “sft”.